Saturday, 16 May 2020 17:57

The Marilyn Monroe/Kennedys Hoax - Part 2: The Mythology Soars into Outer Space

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In part 2 of this essay, Jim DiEugenio continues his review of Donald McGovern’s Murder Orthodoxies by tracing the further trajectory of the Marilyn Monroe/Kennedys mythology as it soars into outer space, concluding that the authors of this hoax created a three-ring Barnum and Bailey circus by supporting and aggrandizing each other.


Robert Slatzer first brought up the idea of Marilyn’s Red Diary of Secrets and that Bobby Kennedy was involved with Murder Incorporated. (DiEugenio and Pease, p. 362) This was ludicrous on its face. Murder Incorporated—Mob contracted killings—began in New York and first operated in the thirties and forties under Bugsy Siegel and Meyer Lansky. It was passed on to Louis Lepke and Albert Anastasia. It was exposed by prosecutor Thomas Dewey and was effectively finished by the mid-forties. In 1940, Bobby Kennedy was 15 years old, he enlisted in the Navy in 1943, he attended Harvard and then the University of Virginia for his law degree. This is more Slatzerian junk. Especially in light of what we know about RFK’s feelings about the Mob.

But what of the diary? As McGovern notes, no one ever heard of this red diary until years after Marilyn was dead. Neither Mailer nor Capell used it. But Robert Slatzer says that Marilyn allowed him to read parts of it. It was from that diary that Slatzer heard things like references to Murder Incorporated; that Bobby had promised to marry Marilyn; and even references to the Bay of Pigs. Slatzer has Marilyn saying that, since the president’s back was bothering him that day, Bobby was handling the Cuban invasion. (DiEugenio and Pease, p. 362)

Again, I wish that was a joke. But it’s not. Even back in 1974, one could easily discover that Bobby Kennedy had little at all to do with the Bay of Pigs. That operation was run by the CIA, much to President Kennedy’s chagrin. It was not until after that debacle that Bobby Kennedy became involved with President Kennedy’s foreign policy management and also in supervising the CIA.

But then what of another diary Marilyn allegedly kept? The one that Ted Jordan saw. Jordan was mostly a TV actor who, like Slatzer, claimed he knew Monroe over a number of years. But like many in the field, he did not write about the relationship until much later, twenty-seven years after her death. There are as many problems with Jordan’s story as there are with Slatzer’s.

As McGovern notes, Jordan could not have met Marilyn as he says he did, through the Blue Book Modeling Agency in 1943. She did not work there until 1945. (McGovern, pp. 105-110) In 1943, Monroe was a housewife in Van Nuys married to Jimmy Dougherty. And Jordan could not have picked her up at her Aunt Gracie’s home, since her aunt was living in West Virginia at that time. (McGovern, p. 109) I could go on in this vein for pages, since McGovern slices and dices Jordan’s work like a Veg-o-matic.

Jordan’s book is also heavy on character assault. Grandison turns Marilyn into Mata Hari. Jordan turns Marilyn into a low life barroom prostitute, who is also addicted to drugs and alcohol. (McGovern, p. 113) Jordan married the stripper Lili St. Cyr in 1955. Jordan writes that Marilyn joined the couple in a three way bed romp. (ibid)

After Jordan was divorced, he was living off of Doheny Drive. One night, in the summer of 1962, Marilyn showed up at his apartment. Jordan characterizes her as looking awful and living in a fantasy world. She walked to his place from Brentwood—a distance of several miles—in a kimono with a bottle of champagne in her hand. And she dropped off her diary. (McGovern, pp. 117-19) The question then becomes, if her diary was with Jordan—as he says it was, since he did not give it to the authorities—then what was Grandison reading? Because, according to Jordan, the contents of the diary he read were much more prosaic than what Grandison said it was.

As noted, Robert Slatzer began this whole diary farrago. But as was often the case, he changed his story about it. In his first book, published in 1974, he said that Marilyn told him he was the only one she allowed to look at her diary. But then, in 1992, in The Marilyn Files, he accommodated a newcomer to the follies, a woman named Jeanne Carmen. (McGovern, p. 254) What is weird about this is that Carmen is not mentioned in Slatzer’s first book. One may also wonder:  if Slatzer was her male best friend and Carmen her best female friend, should they not have run into each other? Yet she is not in Slatzer’s 1974 book and he is not in her 2006 book. (McGovern, p. 131)

In her first descriptions of the diary, it was not the little Red Book of Secrets as described by Slatzer. It was more like a notebook. But then, in 2006, in her memoir, she reverted to the Slatzer version of what it looked like. And now she said she had seen it laying around Marilyn’s place many times. Her version of what was in the diary went beyond Slatzer’s and approached Grandison in sheer bombast. Carmen noticed references to the Mob, Sam Giancana, John Roselli, J. Edgar Hoover, and Jimmy Hoffa. For the same reasons I faulted Grandison, I consider Carmen’s version a fabrication also. Needless to add, Summers used Carmen’s name over 60 times in Goddess. Incredibly, with all the holes we have exposed in Slatzer’s pile of bird droppings, Summers was also vouching for Slatzer as late as 2006. (McGovern, p. 348)

But the diary tale is actually worse than all the above. Because it turned out that Marilyn did have a diary. It was recovered in one of her storage boxes years after a dispute was resolved over her estate. It was nothing like Grandison, Slatzer, or Carmen said it was. The bulk of her estate was given over to the Strasberg family, since Monroe greatly appreciated what her acting coach, Lee Strasberg, had done for her. Those notebooks were compiled in a book called Fragments in 2010. There is no mention of Giancana, Roselli, Hoover, or Tony Accardo. Frank Sinatra is not in there and neither is Castro. Nothing about any romance with the Kennedy brothers or her desire to be First Lady. The only mention of the Kennedys was in notes she made for an interview, in which she said she admired them, as she did Eleanor Roosevelt, because they represented hope for young people. (McGovern, pp. 264-71)

But to show the reader just how off the cliff our culture is on this matter, Grandison’s book was published in 2012. Two years after Fragments. We have now entered the world of high camp.


As the reader can see, the whole charade about the diary was really about a necessary stage prop, one that fit in with the original 1964 scenario concerning Capell’s baseless story about Robert Kennedy being exposed by Monroe. The two playwrights, Capell and Slatzer, refined it as a fictional device in 1974 for the latter’s book.

Grandison then surpassed himself. Not only did he find the diary, but there was also a publicity release in her purse. The release said that there would be a press conference at the LA Press Club. Marilyn would answer questions based upon her Diary of Secrets. I am not kidding. That is what it said and McGovern reproduces it in his book. (p. 557) Of course, no one ever saw it except Grandison. One wonders, since there was no such Diary of Secrets, what was the conference going to be about? Her failed marriages? Her thoughts on her acting career? Because, as one can see, that is what she wrote about in her diary, her real one, not the Slatzerian creation.

The diary was a dramatic necessity, because it would provide ammo for the press conference. But in addition to there being no such diary, according to Mike Selsman, there was no such press conference scheduled for Monday August 6th. Selsman worked for Arthur Jacobs and his firm ran Marilyn’s public relations. Selsman said that if any such press conference would have been called, he or Jacobs, who were handling her account, would have heard about it. Either through a typed up press release or through one of the big name Hollywood reporters, like Vernon Scott of UPI or Jim Bacon of the AP. (McGovern, p. 564) Selsman knew Pat Newcomb, who was Monroe’s press contact, so if there was a press release, she would have given it to him.

And what about Newcomb? When one of Marilyn’s photographers, Bruno Bernard, phoned her years later for an article he was writing, he asked her if she knew anything about Robert Slatzer, supposedly her ex-husband. Newcomb said she never heard of him. Bruno went on to detail Slatzer’s ideas about a murder plot involving a cover up by the LAPD, Robert Kennedy and the FBI. A stony silence now ensued for about 2 minutes. Bernard asked if she was still there. Newcomb replied: “Bruno, if I hadn’t known you for such a long time, I would have hung up long ago listening to that trash.” Bernard then described what happened next:  “She banged down her receiver with a discernible thud.” (Susan Bernard, Marilyn: Intimate Exposures, pp. 180-81)

But then what about assistant DA John Miner and his “tapes”? Miner had a veneer of respectability to him and his story was heavily promoted by the LA Times. In 1962, Miner was part of the Los Angeles District Attorney’s office medico-legal division. He observed Monroe’s autopsy and allegedly interviewed Dr. Greenson. Greenson revealed to Miner that Marilyn had made two streams of consciousness type tapes for him in the weeks before her death. Miner asked the doctor to play them for him. Before he did, Greenson made Miner promise never to reveal their contents. Miner so complied and the lawyer said he made extensive notes on them. (McGovern, pp. 458-59)

There were two things that were odd about his story. First, in the summer of 1962, Greenson was talking to Monroe every day, sometimes twice a day. So why would she need to make stream of consciousness tapes for him?

In 2005, Miner released the notes to the LA Times. They treated it as a major feature story—posing no serious questions to the attorney. It was done so credulously that even someone as smart and experienced as Debra Conway of JFK Lancer bought it.

If one reads that story, one would believe that Miner presented tapes or documents; the latter would be a transcript of the tapes that could be checked. This was not the case. All Miner had were notes. And the point here is that Miner told three stories about when he composed them. And here is the second problem inherent with Greenson:  if the doctor made Miner promise not to reveal their contents, why would he let him take contemporaneous notes? That would indicate Miner intended to make them public, which would be a violation of doctor/patient privilege. So Miner switched to, well, he did not make them in Greenson’s presence, but later that day. He then changed it to he made them many years after. But then, how could one recall them that closely? (McGovern, p. 461)

It turned out—as it almost always does—there was a cash motive behind Miner’s late arrival on the Monroe scene. In 1995, Miner had attempted to sell his notes to Vanity Fair. But in that version, he had only a few pages on a legal pad, which implies he made no contemporaneous notes and it is unlikely that he did them the same day. (Lois Banner, Marilyn, eBook edition, p. 419; McGovern, pp. 463-64) Even at that, Miner tried to incite a bidding war by saying he had been offered six figures by a competitor. This was obviously not true. But it’s even worse than that. Miner had fallen on hard times. He had been terminated from the DA’s office, had his license suspended—for more than one reason—and declared bankruptcy (McGovern, p. 465; Banner, p. 419) This is why he needed payment for the notes. Further, although he told others he had interviewed Greenson, he likely had not. (Banner, p. 419) After further discussion, and further revelations about his history of sexual harassment and obsession with enemas, Lois Banner concluded Miner had created the notes. (ibid, p. 422) Are we to believe that the LA Times did not know any of this in 2005? When even on their face, there were real problems with the Miner notes? (Click here for details)

But let me add one other point about Miner. He was also involved in the inquiry—rather the cover up—of the Robert Kennedy assassination. As anyone who reads Lisa Pease’s book on that case, A Lie Too Big to Fail, the alleged assassin of Robert Kennedy, Sirhan Sirhan, could not have killed the senator. Further, Sirhan showed signs of being hypno-programmed that night. The man who all but admitted to hypnotizing Sirhan was William Joseph Bryan. It turned out that when Bryan died, the attorney for his estate turned out to be none other than John Miner. The night of Bryan’s death, Miner sealed Bryan’s home. (Pease, pp. 67-69, 446)


One of the most telling parts of Murder Orthodoxies is when McGovern uses the calendars of President Kennedy and Attorney General Kennedy and matches them with the two Monroe day-by-day books previously mentioned. (pp. 176-86) Monroe met Robert Kennedy four times, each time was in public with other people around. President Kennedy met with Monroe on three occasions. At one of those, in March of 1962 at Bing Crosby’s desert estate, there is evidence they had some kind of dalliance. And that is it. Biographers Randy Taraborrelli and Gary Vitacco-Robles agree with this record.

What this means is that for any other encounter—in which the time and geographic calendars don’t match—the evidence must originate with anecdotal sources. To accept anecdotal evidence as superseding the black and white record is usually not an acceptable practice. But further, to accept the most problematic testimony, by “witnesses” who 1.) Clearly have an agenda, and 2.) Pose very serious evidentiary problems, and to expect that to surmount the above record, to me that is a practice that should be looked upon with strong skepticism.

Jeanne Carmen first appeared in the Monroe literature due to Summers’ 1985 book, Goddess. (McGovern, p. 120) She then made even more prominent appearances in books by Donald Wolfe and David Heymann. As McGovern notes, right off the bat, she poses problems for the discerning reader, since she posited two different places where she met Marilyn. In one version, she met her in Los Angeles; in another, she met her on the opposite coast in New York. What makes it worse is that there is no supporting evidence for either meeting. (Ibid, pp. 124-26) Since the latter meeting was at the The Actor’s Studio, where many people were friends with Marilyn, that makes it even more puzzling.

Carmen says she knew Monroe for a decade and they became the best of friends, yet she was never able to produce a photo of them together. (McGovern, p. 128) If Monroe had just been an ordinary person, this could be excused. But Monroe was a major movie star during the last ten years of her life. People take pictures on celebrity occasions. I have framed photos of myself with Oliver Stone in my apartment. I have taken photos of people who wanted a picture with Stone. The above factors all raise suspicions about Carmen’s story—and we have not even gotten to that story yet.

In her memoir, Carmen said that Marilyn had a sexual encounter with John Kennedy at the Democratic convention in Los Angeles in 1960. As the author demonstrates through the method reviewed above, Monroe was not in LA at that time. (McGovern, pp. 146-47) Carmen also had her version of what happened between the president and Monroe after the famous 1962 rally in Madison Square Garden, where Monroe sang Happy Birthday to the president. As McGovern shows, this is also wrong since Monroe’s time before, during, and afterwards is all accounted for by neutral witnesses. She was escorted to the event by her former father-in-law and she kindly met with her New York fan club after the fund raiser. Randy Taraborrelli agrees that no such encounter happened. (McGovern, pp. 217-18)

Carmen claimed that she once observed Marilyn partaking in sexual activity with Joe DiMaggio and she added that Marilyn liked having witnesses to these types of affairs. This goes against everything we know about how demure Monroe was about her personal life. Carmen also said she used Valium to subdue DiMaggio on one occasion. This was a decade before the FDA approved the drug and it became commercially available. (McGovern, p. 131) I could go on, but the credibility of Carmen is, to say the least, quite questionable.

Another witness who Summers used was Senator George Smathers. Smathers had been a friend of JFK during his days in the senate. Again, his first appearance in a Monroe biography is in Summers’ Goddess. Smathers told Summers a lot and he was then used by Donald Wolfe, Randy Taraborrelli, David Heymann, and others. According to Summers, he used the Florida senator, because no one else in Kennedy’s circle would talk to him about Monroe. Smathers ended up being the kind of witness no one should use.

On pages 204-05, McGovern makes out a list of almost 20 Smathers generated quotes, which are risible in their contradictions and/or falsity. For instance, Smathers said that it was really RFK who had an affair with Marilyn first and then JFK. But he later said that RFK and Monroe did not engage in an affair. Like Carmen, he said that Monroe had an illicit assignation with JFK at the Democratic Convention in LA in 1960., something which, as we have seen, could not have happened. Smathers also once said that JFK ended his affair with Monroe after the encounter at Bing Crosby’s estate. But he then said that Kennedy spent the night with Monroe after the Madison Square Garden fundraiser! As noted above, no such thing happened. One could deduce that Smathers told so many whoppers he couldn’t keep track of them.

But perhaps the biggest howler Smathers ever uttered was that Monroe would often visit the White House and sometimes she would show up unannounced. (McGovern, p. 204) He even said that Monroe visited Washington and took a ride on a presidential yacht with Kennedy and Senator Hubert Humphrey. In rebuttal, I can do no better than quote the author on this point:

In fact, Marilyn never visited the White House and, in fact, she never appeared there unexpectedly and unannounced, like a waif with her suitcases, night gowns, and tooth brushing gear; and to assert that she did so is, and was, absolutely ridiculous on its face. (p. 217)

McGovern writes several pages on why Smathers may have told so many BS stories about his alleged former friend. Although Smathers was a Democrat, he was much more conservative than John Kennedy. While Kennedy was endorsing the Brown vs. Board decision in public in 1956 and 1957, Smathers was signing the segregationist Southern Manifesto. Smathers then resisted the civil rights program that JFK started through congress. In 1960, Smathers entered the Florida presidential primary as a favorite son candidate. And he stayed in even after Kennedy requested he withdraw. (McGovern, p. 194) Like Ben Bradlee, Smathers turned out to be Kennedy’s false friend.

Just how far out into the world of the X-Files do these fantasies go? Well, according to Dr. Donald Burleson, they ascend into outer space. In his 2003 book UFO’s and the Murder of Marilyn Monroe, he offers the theory that President Kennedy had revealed to Marilyn the secrets of space aliens and UFO’s and, like everything else she never knew, Monroe was going to go public with the knowledge. (McGovern, pp. 18-19) How did the plotters know of her plan? Her house was bugged. As McGovern notes, Monroe’s home must have had more wiretaps and surveillance microphones than an NSA listening base, since everyone was bugging her house. Yet, consistent with the diaphanous nature of this case, there are no tapes to be heard. And the two men most often mentioned as doing the bugging—Bernard Spindel and Fred Otash—failed to mention any such thing in their books about their careers. (McGovern, p. 439, 443) Further, intelligence analyst John Newman has shown that certain documents that allege to reveal such ET knowledge by Monroe are forgeries. (DiEugenio and Pease, pp. 360-61)


Let us close with the last week of Monroe’s life. As anyone familiar with the tall tale understands, this involves Monroe going through a hellish weekend at the Cal-Neva Lodge in Lake Tahoe. This wild, unbelievable weekend has evolved over time into a veritable phantasmagoria. In the ultimate Heymann/Chuck Giancana form, we have Peter Lawford, Frank Sinatra (who owned the club at the time), and Sam Giancana doing everything they could to stop Monroe from holding the press conference she was not going to hold with the Secret Diary that did not exist. This weekend featured drugs, alcohol, and all kinds of sexual abuse—in some versions, lesbianism. (McGovern pp. 414-19) How and why was Giancana there? Well, he was a major sponsor of Monroe’s career, which is another myth that McGovern exposes as utterly false. (McGovern, pp. 397-408) Why Sam would want to stop Monroe from hurting the Kennedys is part of the illogic that prevails in these fantasies. By 1963, Bobby Kennedy was making Giancana’s life a painful endeavor. The AG had surveillance on the Chicago mobster, both electronic and human, everywhere he went—including the golf course. The idea that Giancana would want to help the Kennedys could only live in the pages of the trashy book Double Cross.

Marilyn went to Cal-Neva with Joe DiMaggio at the invitation of Dean Martin. She wanted to thank Martin for his support during her struggle with the studio over her last film, Something’s Got to Give. They also discussed a future project. Martin also wanted Monroe to marry DiMaggio again, which reportedly she agreed to do. (ibid, p. 417) But, of course, that won’t sell a lot of books or get you a spot on tabloid TV, which brings us full circle to the day of Monroe’s death again. Summers, Wolfe, Heymann, Matt Smith, and an array of other writers, like Milo Speriglio, have worked triple overtime trying to get Robert Kennedy into Brentwood on August 4th. The problem is that there was compelling evidence that Bobby was in Gilroy, near San Jose at a ranch owned by John Bates, a prominent attorney in San Francisco. But not only did these authors persist in the belief that RFK was at Monroe’s, some writers said he was there twice that day. The solution, as first proposed by Norman Mailer, was that somehow Bobby Kennedy got there by helicopter and landed near Lawford’s home. (McGovern, p. 273) As this book shows, there was no helipad near Lawford’s home.

What McGovern does with this helicopter tale, as refined by later authors, is worth the price of the book. He gives us a short history of the development of the chopper and summarizes the available models at that time. The average cruising speed of possible 1962 helicopters would be about 105 MPH. Therefore, it would take over three hours to make the journey one way. And you might have to stop for gas outside of Los Angeles. No helicopter could have landed near the Bates ranch, due to the topography and high-tension wires. (McGovern, pp. 288-89) Therefore, a car must have taken Bobby to the San Jose airport. And since there was no helipad at Lawford’s, nor one in Brentwood at that time, Kennedy must have landed perhaps at Fox studio. And someone drove him to Brentwood. As we will see, this could have only happened at night, for the idea that RFK was there in the afternoon is impossible. Yet to fly over the Santa Cruz mountains in darkness in 1962, would be foolhardy. For one thing, the Venturi Effect could cause an altimeter malfunction and a crash. But authors like Heymann need a great dramatic scene in Brentwood with Monroe coming at RFK with a knife, so they insist—against all the evidence and logic—that Kennedy was there. (McGovern, p. 151)

Bobby Kennedy was going to make a speech in San Francisco on Monday for the ABA. Bates invited him to spend the weekend at his ranch, while he was in the area. (Bernard, p. 185) The FBI liaison to the AG made out two reports covering his itinerary for that weekend. (McGovern, pp. 281-82) Bobby was picked up at the San Francisco airport by Bates and driven to Gilroy late on August 3rd.

McGovern’s book referenced Susan Bernard’s 2011 volume of photographs, Marilyn: Intimate Exposures. When I turned to pages 186-87, a wave of shock went through me, which quickly changed to disgust. On those two pages, Bernard features ten pictures of Bobby Kennedy at the Bates Ranch on August 4th. He was taking his kids horseback riding, swimming in the pool, a hike up a hill, and partaking in a touch football game. These pictures had existed since 1962. And no one in nearly fifty years ever saw them, or chose to print them? I don’t believe that. It is more likely that they have been suppressed. With these pictures, the nearly dozen witnesses at the ranch, the FBI reports, the article in the local paper on the following Monday about Bobby Kennedy being in church the day before, with that kind of evidence, all the reports about RFK being in Los Angeles that day are tossed into the trash bin. (McGovern, p. 273)

But, again, let us be fair. After both families arranged dinner for the kids, and then for themselves, Bobby worked on his speech and then retired:  could the helicopter scenario be enacted then? There were two gates to the ranch. Bobby Kennedy would have had to wait for his wife to fall asleep first, therefore it would be about 10:45. One of the men in the arriving car would have had to somehow crash both gates. If we then allow for the drive to the airport, the flight to some kind of landing field in LA, and then the drive to Brentwood, there is a problem, and it’s a big one:  Monroe is already dead. Or at least beyond saving.

Perhaps the only part of the book better than McGovern’s review of Robert Kennedy in Gilroy is his examination of the Monroe autopsy. After a 21-page analysis, he concludes that the latest time she could have died would have been at 2:30 AM on August 5th. Dr. Cyril Wecht places that time earlier, at 2:00 AM. And she would have been in a comatose state at least an hour earlier. (McGovern, pp. 488-89) Bobby Kennedy would have arrived at about 2:45, and that is making good time.

In that chapter, the author addresses the questions that people like Slatzer and Wolfe have posed about the autopsy. It was not uncommon to have ingested the pills Monroe did and not have them show up as residue in the stomach. Simply because Monroe’s stomach was empty and the organ keeps on working until the subject has passed on. (McGovern, p. 483). Also, the manufacturer of Nembutal used a color dye that did not bleed from the gelatin capsules once swallowed, which explains why no dyes were found in her stomach. (ibid, p. 482) Not only did Wecht agree with Thomas Noguchi’s autopsy, so did Dr. Boyd Stevens for the DA’s office review of the case in 1982. McGovern also proves through the barbiturate levels in Monroe’s liver and blood that she was not injected or given a “hot shot”. Later on in the book, he also shows that it is highly unlikely that Marilyn was killed through a rectal suppository, as was proposed in Chuck Giancana’s clownish book Double Cross. (McGovern, pp. 514-15)

Today, after the Elvis Presley and Michael Jackson cases, Monroe’s doctors would have been placed on trial for their irresponsible overprescribing of pills and also for the dangerous combination the prescriptions created:  Nembutal, Chloral Hydrate, Librium, Phenergan, and (most likely) Triavil. The two drugs that killed her are the first two.

Don McGovern has written a quite commendable book. One that swims against some sick cultural tides. As he shows, no one was “protecting the Kennedys.” Those who used that rubric were engaging in the most outrageous practices of evidence manipulation and character assassination; not just of the Kennedys, but of Marilyn Monroe. Monroe was not a Mafia moll, nor was she a high level intelligence agent. McGovern has shown these to be part of a ludicrous and unfounded sideshow. There is a standard in writing nonfiction: sensational charges necessitate sensational evidence. That rule was completely discarded in this field a long time ago, specifically by Norman Mailer. This opened the door to the likes of Slatzer, Grandison, Carmen, and Smathers. Supporting and aggrandizing each other, they created a three ring Ringling Brothers circus.

Don McGovern’s book applies the torch to their circus tent.

Last modified on Monday, 18 May 2020 18:55
James DiEugenio

One of the most respected researchers and writers on the political assassinations of the 1960s, Jim DiEugenio is the author of two books, Destiny Betrayed (1992/2012) and The JFK Assassination: The Evidence Today (2018), co-author of The Assassinations, and co-edited Probe Magazine (1993-2000).   See "About Us" for a fuller bio.

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