Tuesday, 23 May 2023 08:32

Walker Bullet CE 573: Is it Real?

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Tom Gram and Ben Cole make the case that the bullet found by the police at Walker's house is likely not the bullet presented as such by the Warren Commission. They present indications that the FBI and Dallas Police probably knew about this. If the bullet is really not copper coated, then this opens up the question: How could Oswald have fired it?

As most JFK researchers know, the “Walker Bullet,” or CE 573, was purportedly extracted from the home of General Edwin Walker on April 10, 1963, and was contemporaneously described in official Dallas Police Department (DPD) reports as “steel jacketed.” Someone had taken a potshot at Walker that night, through the window on the rear side of his house, in front of which the General was seated. Or so Walker had related to the DPD that night.

Not one, but rather two, DPD detectives, by the names of Ira Van Cleave and Don E. McElroy, put their signatures on a General Offense Report, and authored and signed a Supplementary Offense Report on April 10.

In the Supplementary Offense Report, both detectives observed “a bullet of unknown caliber, steel jacket, had been shot through the window” at Walker’s home, as the General sat his desk.[1]

Two DPD patrolmen, B.G. Norvell and J.P. Tucker authored the General Offense Report, which also identified the Walker Bullet as a “steel jacketed bullet.” All four DPD officers had held the Walker Bullet that night in their hands that night, and inscribed initials into it, according to official reports.

The Walker Bullet that night famously missed the right-wing General—a national political figure—and had then passed through an interior wall, became badly deformed, but, reportedly, subsequently and curiously came to rest in between bundled papers stacked up against the wall.

Months later, the Warren Commission would conclude it was Lee Harvey Oswald (LHO) who shot at and attempted to murder Walker that night. In part after the FBI said the Walker Bullet, or CE 573, was in fact the same type of Western-brand ammo that LHO used in his Mannlicher-Carcano rifle. Of course, the problem is the Walker Bullet in the possession of the Warren Commission, CE 573, is copper jacketed, and obviously so.

CE 573, whatever its true origins, is a severely mangled bullet; so much so that its copper-jacketing has been torn asunder. Thus any observer, even a layman, can easily see the copper jacket is in fact copper through-and-through, and not a relatively uncommon steel-jacketed bullet with copper-gilding. It would not be surprising if a photo of CE 573 is used in police-cadet training courses somewhere as a classic example of a copper-jacketed bullet.

Moreover, there are initials carved into CE 573, though of mysterious origin. Anyone carving initials into a copper-jacketed bullet would immediately know it was copper-jacketed, and not steel-jacketed, as copper is softer than steel.

In addition, anyone carving initials into a copper-gilded steel jacketed bullet would notice the steel color and hardness emerging from under the microscopically thin copper gilding. It is inexplicable that even one big-city police detective would describe CE 573 as “steel-jacketed.” But two DPD detectives and two DPD patrolman authored and signed brief one-page reports prominently describing the Walker Bullet as exactly that, “steel jacketed”—after having handled the slug and marking it with their initials.

Steel-Jacketed Bullets are a Rarity

There are yet more puzzling aspects of the DPD detectives concurring and specifically noting that the Walker Bullet was “steel jacketed.”

The vast majority of bullets in the 1960s, and even today, are copper-jacketed, and have been for more than a century.

Bullets with metal jackets largely replaced plain lead bullets at about the same time that smokeless propellants replaced black powder in the majority of rifle ammunition. The higher pressures and temperatures produced by smokeless propellants were more than plain lead could support. This was overcome by adding an outer skin of harder metal to lead bullets. Since pure copper is difficult to cold-work, copper alloys became the standard jacket material.” — Global Forensic & Justice Center.[2]

So, copper-jacketed (technically, copper-alloy jacketed) bullets largely replaced unjacketed lead bullets in first half of the 1900s, and had become standard by the 1960s.

Steel-jacketed bullets, in contrast, are generally specialty items, designed for extraordinary penetrating power, often in military applications. But importantly, there have been inexpensive, steel-jacketed bullets on US civilian markets in the decades after WWII, often military surplus. More on that key topic later.

In any event, any competent police detective working an attempted murder scene, when picking up the bullet in evidence, would, of course, try to detect its nature—the bore, jacketing, brand, and so on. A relatively rare, steel-jacketed bullet would be very notable—a valuable clue. The would-be murderer would have been armed with unusual ammo, very much worth noting. Especially in the case of an attempted murder of a very high-profile public figure, as in General Walker.

Why would DPD detectives call an obviously copper-jacketed slug, a “steel jacketed” bullet?

It defies explanation, especially as copper-jacketed bullets were and are the norm.

Warren Commission

That there is a dubious history of CE 573 is of no doubt. But the Walker Bullet becomes even more iffy when the Warren Commission’s wan efforts to examine the authenticity of the CE 573 are reviewed.

So, imagine: You had two detectives with a big-city police department who attested, in writing, in a brief same-day April 10 report that the Walker Bullet, now known as CE 573, was steel-jacketed. As did two patrolman. Worth noting is that April 10 was months before the JFKmurder, and before any subsequent pressure to make evidence fit the case.

Though not considered official evidence, the April 12, 1963 edition of The New York Times reported that Walker had been targeted with a 30.06 rifle, citing information provided by DPD detective Ira Van Cleave. Van Cleave would tell not only the Times, but the national wire service the Associated Press and at least two Texas newspapers that he had, in effect, handled and marked a steel-jacketed 30.06 slug the night of April 10 1963, in the Walker home.[3]

From Copper to Steel

But then, on Dec. 3 the purported Walker Bullet was sent from Dallas to the FBI’s DC lab, where it became CE 573, and wherein the slug was examined and found to be obviously copper-jacketed. Without hesitation, Robert Frazier of the FBI identified the CE 573 as a “copper-jacketed lead bullet” in a hand-written report dated Dec. 4.[4]

This presented the Warren Commission with a conundrum.

The WC needed to dispense with this troublesome point of steel having been transmogrified into visible and obvious copper. But the Dallas Police Department records could not be retroactively corrected.

So the Warren Commission fleetingly asked Frazier, special agent from the FBI lab, about “why someone might have called this (CE 573) a steel-jacketed bullet?

Melvin Eisenberg, assistant counsel, asked the question.

Eisenberg: Is this a jacketed bullet?
Frazier: Yes, it is a copper-alloy jacketed bullet having a lead core.
Eisenberg: Can you think of any reason why someone might have called this a steel-jacketed bullet?
Frazier: No sir; except that some individuals commonly refer to rifle bullets as steel-jacketed bullets, when they actually in fact just have a copper-alloy jacket.[5]

And that was that.

Frazier said “some individuals” commonly refer to rifle bullets as “steel jacketed,” and the questioning was closed off.

“Some individuals,” of course, is an unlimited category that might include anyone on the planet, or park winos, or hunter’s housewives—or FBI special agents whistling in the dark. Sure, “some individuals” unfamiliar with firearms might breezily mix up steel- and copper-jacketed bullets—but police department detectives gathering evidence at the scene of an attempted murder, of a very high profile political figure?

At the time he was allegedly shot at, Walker was nationally famous, featured on national magazine covers.

The Warren Commission notably did not ask Frazier if the FBI lab ever conflated steel- and copper-jacketed bullets, or if police reports at the time readily interchanged the terms. Of course, they did not.

Moreover, a review of ammo ads and literature from the 1960s, albeit limited to what is available online in the present, shows a great deal of specificity regarding bullet jackets. Ammo makers did not blithely mix up “steel” vs. “copper.”

There is no reason why DPD detectives would refer to a common copper-jacketed bullet as a relatively rare, steel-jacketed bullet. There is not the slightest hint in industry literature that rifle bullets were ever commonly described as “steel jacketed”—nor would that make sense, since rifle bullets became commonly copper-jacketed in the early 1900s.

The Chain of Evidence

Anybody (except the Warren Commission) might be reasonably curious if CE 573 was really the bullet extracted from the Walker home on April 10, 1963.

So, how did the FBI check the chain of evidence on the CE 573?

Did they show CE 573 to the two DPD detectives, McElroy and Van Cleave?


The DPD crime lab?


The FBI, checking the authenticity of CE 573, showed a slug to DPD Patrolman B.G. Norvell.

Who? Who was Norvell?

In a June 10, 1964 report, the FBI wrote that on the night of April 10 at the Walker residence, “Patrolman B.G. Norvell handled a bullet, which Norvell stated he had found among some papers and literature in the room next to the room where General Walker had been sitting at the time of the shooting” to the DPD Crime Scene Search Section officer, named B.G. Brown.

Okay, as far as it goes. But (italics added):

But then reading in that very same report, the FBI also recorded that DPD Detective “McElroy, a police officer for thirteen years, advised it appeared the bullet had entered through a window in the back of the house and gone through a wall next to which General Walker had been sitting at the time, in the room next to where General Walker had been sitting. McElroy stated he found a spent bullet among some papers and literature. There was a hole in the wall through which the bullet had apparently entered. McElroy stated he picked up the bullet and later gave it to Officer B.G. Brown, of the Crime Scene Search Section.”[6]

You can’t make this stuff up.

According to the FBI report, the DPD detective McElroy said he found the original Walker Bullet and gave the mangled slug to the crime scene officer…but the patrolman Norvell told the FBI that he, Norvell, found the Walker Bullet and handed it to the crime scene officer.

It should be noted that Norvell was, at best, a novice. Norvell had joined the DPD in December of 1962, and had been with the department for five months on the night of Walker shooting. Norvell then left the DPD less than one month later. Yes, Norvell’s entire police career spanned six months.

The FBI report pointedly noted that Detective McElroy had been on the force for 13 years at the time of the Walker shooting.

But it was to Norvell that the FBI, 14 months after the Walker shooting, showed a slug. Norvell said he recognized the CE 573 bullet from the “BN” or “N” he had scratched into the bullet.

There is other evidence and complications.

The other DPD patrolman with Norvell that night, named Tucker, told the FBI that Norvell had initially found the bullet, perhaps buttressing the story. But then Tucker also told the FBI he never saw Norvell initial or inscribe the bullet.

Of course, it is always uncomfortable to make accusations.

But at best the novice Norvell handled the original Walker bullet briefly, before being asked to identify a bullet shown to him by the FBI 14 months later. Suppose an “N” was on a mangled bullet? Or…who is to know if the FBI, in fact, showed the true original steel jacketed Walker Bullet to Norvell, while CE 573 stayed back in the FBI lab?

Photographs? Lab Reports?

The Dallas Police Department did send original reports and seven photographs of the Walker crime scene to the FBI in early December, 1963—but no photographs of the Walker bullet.

If the Walker bullet was photographed on April 10, 1963, or shortly thereafter in the DPD lab, there is no record of it.[7]

Indeed, there are few surviving paper records from the DPD lab regarding the Walker Bullet at all.

If anyone in the DPD lab ever described the Walker Bullet in writing, either as steel-jacketed or copper-jacketed, the records have disappeared. The Warren Commission did produce a small, dark, black-and-white photo of CE 573 in their 26-volume set, in which determining the color of the bullet is impossible.

The Rankin Order Regarding Chains of Evidence

J. Lee Rankin was the general counsel to the Warren Commission, and thus one of the staffers who “did the real work” of the body.

On May 4, 1964, Rankin sent to FBI Chief J. Edgar Hoover a memo, regarding physical evidence and the chain of evidence in the JFK case. That memo in part reads:

“We would like you to determine, and set forth in one document, where and by whom these items were found following the assassination. In each case the item should be shown to the person who found it so that he can identify through inspection….However it is unnecessary to trace the chain of possession forward past the first person who can identify the item by inspection.”[8]

The memo specifically mentions the Walker Bullet, CE 573.

Thus, FBI agents followed Rankin’s directive, and showed the Walker bullet CE 573 only to patrolman Novell, even though there was a conflict in the written official FBI record regarding if Novell actually found and handled the bullet. One obvious interpretation is that Rankin wanted to sidestep showing the bullet and getting testimony from DPD detectives McElroy and Van Cleave.

Asst. Director W. C. Sullivan

On Dec. 4, 1963, mere hours after the FBI had recorded receipt of the Walker Bullet, FBI Asst. Director W.C. Sullivan was evidently in a frenzy regarding the slug.

jfk bullet type secretAccording to an FBI memo sent to the FBI office in Dallas, on Dec. 4, “Asst. Director W. C. Sullivan called at 3:10 am and instructed he receive a return phone call and be filled in on the details regarding to the alleged bullet shot into the home of General Edwin A. Walker.”[9]

Yes, 3:10 am.

The FBI memo, on which the sender's identity has curiously been redacted, continued, “Mr. Sullivan then instructed that agents review Dallas newspaper morgues first thing Wednesday morning, 12/4/63, and details be obtained and furnished to him by teletype.”

Sullivan may have been a night owl. Perhaps overwrought by JFK case duties. But even so, it is evident that Sullivan had urgent concerns about the authenticity of the Walker Bullet, and called the purported Walker Bullet the “alleged” slug—unusual for evidence submitted to the FBI by a police department. Well before sunrise on Dec. 4, Sullivan was issuing urgent orders demanding immediate action from the Dallas FBI and information on the Walker Bullet.

But not only did Sullivan think the true Walker Bullet might actually be steel jacketed.

DPD Chief Curry Opines JFK Shot with “Steel Jacketed” Bullet

More curiosities abound.

On Nov. 29, 1963 Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry told the Associated Press that "in his opinion the bullets [that struck President Kennedy] were steel jacketed, but he said this was not confirmed to him [by the FBI].”

Huh? “Steel jacketed”?

This bit of recovered history is jarring, to say the least.

Why on earth would Chief Curry, one week after the murder, opine to a national news media organization that the bullets that struck JFK—which Curry had never seen, or examined, and which were still an FBI “secret”—were relatively rare steel-jacketed bullets, rather than the industry norm, standard and very common copper-jacketed bullets?

There is nothing in the JFK case itself to suggest steel-jacketed bullets were used. In fact, the horrible head shot at Z-313 was evidently accomplished with a copper-jacketed bullet—or at least so says the WC. So why late in November 1963 was the Dallas Police Chief Curry seeking to have confirmed, by the FBI, that the bullets that struck JFK were steel-jacketed? This becomes more interesting when one again ponders the nature of bullets.

Interestingly, as early as Nov. 23, 1963, Chief Curry was asked by an unidentified news reporter whether LHO was the failed assassin of General Walker, as captured on film in a hallway interview.[10]

Curry replied, “I don’t know.”

According to Dec. 4, 1963 FBI memo sent to FBI Director Hoover, the DPD had considered turning the Walker Bullet over to the FBI even before being asked, as “they felt there was some possibility that Oswald might have shot at Walker.”[11]

Steel-Jacketed Bullets Are Relatively Rare

As stated, in the early 1960s almost all rifle bullets and most other bullets were copper-jacketed (technically, copper-zinc alloys). The jacketing helps prevent lead-fouling of rifle barrels (lead being a very soft metal). Also, the increasing explosive power of bullets had necessitated jackets to prevent a pure lead slug from mushrooming or deforming as it went down the barrel.

The idea that the Dallas Police Chief Curry would be seeking confirmation, from the FBI, that the bullets that struck JFK were steel-jacketed is remarkable.

Why would Curry suspect steel-jacketed bullets?

The answer almost certainly goes back to the ever-controversial April 10, 1963 rifle shot taken at General Walker. As stated, inside the Walker home a slug was recovered by police and identified as steel jacketed by two DPD detectives, and two patrolmen, in the same-day official police report they authored and signed.

DPD Detective Van Cleave then told reporters from at least four different news organizations, including the AP, that the bullet recovered was a "30.06."

Which is interesting—especially the part about the “30.06.”

The US military, under dire duress of WWII wartime copper shortages, did in fact manufacture a steel-jacketed 30.06 during the war and shortly thereafter, bullets which were sold into surplus when the US adopted NATO-compatible ammo in 1955. The steel-jacketed 30.06’s were phased out of military use.[12]

small arms ammunitionSo civilians could buy the steel-jacketed 30.06 bullets.

Moreover, by Nov. 29, DPD detectives had been through the belongings of Lee Harvey Oswald, and had found the ever-gloomy backyard photograph of General Walker's house (the one with an auto license plate cut out), along with four other photographs of roads and railroad tracks leading to the Walker residence.

Also on Nov. 29, the German newspaper Deutsche National und Soldaten-Zeitung published an article that accused LHO of having shot at General Walker.[13]

The reasonable deduction, indeed inevitable conclusion, is Chief Curry on Nov. 29 or earlier had reviewed the official DPD files on the Walker shooting, and read that a steel-jacketed slug had been found in the Walker residence.

So, it looked like this to Chief Curry: LHO, accused of shooting at JFK and now himself dead, had had in his possession backyard photos of the Walker house—the very house in which Walker, another high-profile public figure, had also been shot at. A house in which a steel-jacketed slug had been recovered on the night of the shooting.

So, naturally, Curry opined LHO used the same type of steel-jacketed bullets in shooting JFK, and asked the FBI to confirm as much. That info would help close the books on the Walker attempted murder.

It stretches credulity that Chief Curry would blunderbuss or conflate the terms “steel jacketed” and “copper jacketed’ when asking the FBI to confirm the type of bullets used in the assassination of a sitting US president.

CE 573: No “DAY” and no “+”

There are other incongruities regarding the true Walker Bullet. On two separate occasions Lt. J.C. “Carl” Day of the DPD testified he had marked the true Walker Bullet with the word “DAY” and a “cross.”

On or about Dec. 5 1963, Lt. Day told the FBI he had placed upon the Walker slug the word "Day" and a "cross." The slug itself, not an envelope, box or tag.

Then, here is Lt. Day testifying before the WC in 1964:

Mr. BELIN. I will ask you this. Have you ever seen Commission Exhibit 573 before, if you know?
Mr. DAY. Yes, sir; I have.
Mr. BELIN. Could you tell us what 573 is?
Mr. DAY. This slug was gotten from the home of former General Edwin Walker, 4011 Turtle Creek, April 10, 1963, by Detective B. G. Brown, one of the officers under my supervision. He brought this in and released it to me.
Mr. BELIN. You are reading now from a report that is in your possession, is that correct?
Mr. DAY. Yes, sir. Those are the official records of my office.
Mr. BELIN. Was that prepared under your supervision?
Mr. DAY. Yes, sir.
Mr. BELIN. In the regular course of your duties at the Dallas Police Department?
Mr. DAY. Yes, sir. The slug has my name “DAY” scratched in it.[14]

After that last comment, Belin quickly changed topics. It is not clear why Day was reading from his official DPD records, or if Day even handled the bullet during the hearing.

Another problem is this: in 1979 the National Archives and Records Service, on behalf of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, took CE 573 to the FBI lab in Washington, where it was “microscopically” examined. The examiners found the markings “Q188,” “N,” “B,” “J,” “D,” “A,” “O,” and “D”.[15]

The examiners did not see the word “DAY” or a “cross.” Even under a microscope. Extant photos of CE 573 do not reveal the word “DAY” either.

The Walker Bullet Was Found—Resting between Bundles of Literature?

Among the many oddities of the true Walker Bullet is where it was found.

If DPD patrolman Norvell is correctly quoted, he found the steel-jacketed slug resting atop one bundle of paper in a stack of bundles, after another bundle had been removed from atop of it.

That is, the Walker Bullet missed Walker, then passed through an interior wall behind Walker. The Walker Bullet then purportedly came to rest in-between bundles of paper.[16]

bundles of paperCommission Exhibit 1009: The Walker Bullet was found “in between” bundles of paper such as this?

Per an FBI report dated June 4, 1964 (italics added):

"In his adjoining [Walker's] room, the [Dallas Police Department] officers [Tucker and Norvell] found numerous bundles and literature and papers stacked against this common wall. Upon removing some, they found a mushroom-shaped bullet lying on one of the stacks of literature near the hole in the wall.”

There has always been speculation that General Walker, a national public figure, had staged the Walker shooting as a publicity stunt, with or without LHO’s participation.

If the true Walker Bullet was found resting in-between bundles of paper, lying on one of the stacks, then one might have suspicions the bullet had been planted there.

CE 399

ce573 ce399CE 399 is, of course, the controversial “magic bullet” or the relatively pristine slug purported to have been recovered at Parkland Hospital on Nov. 22, 1963.

CE 399 is a Western ammo 6.5 millimeter copper-jacketed slug—a brother bullet to CE 573. Same make and bore, type. The 6.5 Western ammo is used in the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle said to have been owned or used by LHO.

But a key fact is this: No one in any local or federal police agency ever called CE 399 a “steel jacketed” bullet. Nowhere in the voluminous FBI files is there a single reference to CE 399 as a “rifle bullet,” ergo one that is “steel jacketed.”

That is to say, CE 399 was immediately and correctly ID’ed as a copper-jacketed bullet, which it obviously is. But CE 573 is a brother bullet to CE 399, and even more obviously copper-jacketed, as it has been mangled, revealing a solid copper jacketing. It stretches credulity that there are police agency errors, misnomers and problems of nomenclature regarding CE 573—but not CE 399.


One could be forgiven for having reasonable doubt that CE 573 is the true Walker Bullet, the slug extracted from the General’s residence on April 10, 1963. Indeed, one could ask how anyone could be “reasonably certain” that CE 573 is bona fide evidence from the Walker shooting.

To recap and ponder—

  • The original and official DPD reports described a relatively rare “steel jacketed” slug found in the Walker home, on April 10, 1963, the night of the shooting. The bullet was handled and initialed through inscribing by four DPD officers. But CE 573—the WC’s purported Walker Bullet—is obviously copper-jacketed.
  • The extremely thin Warren Commission questioning of FBI agent Frazier, as to how and why the Walker Bullet could ever be described as “steel jacketed” by DPD detectives. Frazier answered that “some individuals refer to all rifle bullets as steel jacketed,” a novel and unique observation. There is nothing in police or FBI literature to suggest police detectives or FBI special agents anywhere ever described “all rifle bullets” as steel jacketed—especially when copper-jacketed rifle bullets were and are the norm.
  • Lt. Day of the Dallas Police Department, stating unequivocally to the FBI and then to the WC that he had carved the true Walker slug with his name “DAY” and a cross. No such markings can be seen on CE 573, even under a microscope.
  • The lack of same-day April 10, 1963, or indeed any Dallas Police Department photographs of the true Walker Bullet. The true Walker Bullet was never photographed or, if it was, the photographs have disappeared. Moreover, there are no surviving written DPD lab reports on the Walker Bullet that describe the slug as steel- or copper-jacketed.
  • The weak chain of evidence confirmation by the FBI-WC on the provenance of CE 573. The FBI in 1964 showed a slug purported to be the Walker Bullet only to Norvell, the DPD patrolman, who at best handled the slug briefly 14 months earlier. The FBI did not show the purported Walker Bullet to detectives McElroy or Van Cleave.
  • Neither FBI nor the Commission ever asked Van Cleave why they thought the Walker Bullet was a steel-jacketed 30.06. A simple question, such as “OK, Van Cleave. You handled and inscribed the Walker Bullet, held it in your hand on April 10. Why did you call the Walker Bullet ‘steel jacketed’ in official police reports and 30.06 when talking to reporters?” That simple question was never asked of the best witness.
  • Chief Curry opining on Nov. 29 that JFK had been assassinated with “steel jacketed” bullets, and that he was trying to confirm that fact with the FBI. Curry was almost certainly referring to the Walker shooting, and the “steel jacketed” 30.06 slug found on the scene—a shooting being laid at the feet of LHO, due to the photographs of the Walker home and approaches found in LHO’s possession post JFKA.

In sum, it is difficult to have confidence the true Walker Bullet, described as steel-jacketed, is also the WC’s CE 573, the torn-asunder copper-jacketed.

What could be corroborating evidence—the correct marks on the CE 573, or correct same-day detective reports, or a true contemporary April 1983 Walker Bullet photograph, or a true contemporary written report from the DPD lab—are all lacking regarding CE 573. Anyone driving to confirm the authenticity of CE 573 meets roadblock after roadblock after roadblock.

It is hardly a secret that the job of the Commission was not to investigate the JFK case, but rather to prosecute LHO as a “leftie, loner, loser.” And their narrative on the Walker shooting was that Oswald took a potshot at the General, thus indicating LHO’s predisposition to assassination of public figures.

However, prosecutorial zeal can lead to excesses and shortcomings.


[1]Texas History

[2]Jacketed Bullets

[3]Walker Escapes Assassin’s Bullet

[4] Document from HSCA Administrative folder (page 13)

[5] Testimony of Robert A. Frazier

[6] CE 1953

[7]Texas History

[8] FBI 62-109090 Warren Commission HQ File, Section 17 (page 119)

[9]FBI Files on Edwin Walker, 82-2130 File (page 27)

[10] November 23, 1963 - Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry speaks with reporters in the corridor

[11]FBI Files on Edwin Walker, 82-2130 File (page 30)

[12] 100 Year History of the .30-06; see also US WWII produced steel case 30-06 (read the posted volume, “Record of Army Ordnance, Research and Development,” from the Office of the Chief of Ordnance)

[13] FBI file number 124-10369-10024 (see page 5)

[14] Testimony of J. C. Day

[15] Document from HSCA Administrative folder (page 10)

[16] CE 1953

Last modified on Tuesday, 23 May 2023 11:33
Tom Gram and Benjamin Cole

Tom Gram's bio will be updated shortly.

Benjamin Cole has been reading about the JFKA since the event, digesting the weekly LIFE magazine subscriptions that came in the mail. A lifetime financial journalist, Cole discovered the online world of the JFKA 10 years ago, and dove back in. Cole is deeply impressed with the best elements of JFKA community, and hopes to play a small role going forward.

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